The competitive nature of sport requires an aggressive approach. The athlete is different, as he or she usually has a higher pain threshold, expects a fast return to a high level of competition, and does not report their pain for fear of losing minutes of play or financial compensation… It is therefore important to specify a rehabilitation treatment plan aimed at early and safe reintegration.
For that purpose, rehabilitation must be addressed at a global and functional level. The movement of the human body is developed by patterns. When a structure is altered, the whole chain of movement can be affected. For example, if there is a deficit in the lumbo-pelvic area stability, this may have consecuences in the stability of other parts of the body, such as the knee. Therefore, the approach must be global when it comes to the treatment of specific injuries. The intensity of the rehabilitation programme should be proportional to the healing process. The time until the return to activity may vary depending on the competitive level (amateur, professional or elite) of each athlete, as the physical, psychological, working and social demands will also be different.
MOST COMMON INJURIES 2
- Labral injuries
- Bankart injury
- SLAP injury
- Traumatic injuries
- Pathology of the rotator cuff (especially tendinopathy of the supraspinatus)
- Femoroacetabular impingement
- Dynamic osteopathy of the pubis
- Enthesopathy (inflammation of the tendon at insertion)
- Ligament injuries
- Anterior cruciate ligament
- Posterior cruciate ligament
- Meniscal and cartilaginous injuries
- Condropathy patella
Ankle and foot
- Plantar fasciitis
- Ankle sprain and instability
- Fractures: tibia, fibula…
Mechanical lumbago and cervicalgia
At the rehabilitation service at Quirón Hospital we offer a personalised treatment for each specific injury, never forgetting the concept of globality of the body.
The rehabilitation treatment of a sporting injury, depending on the clinical situation, can be carried out at hospital or outpatient level, and in advanced phases can be completed with a phase of readaptation to the level of exertion which prepares the body to face the physical demands that the sporting activity requires.
Sports practice involves both traumatic and overuse injuries. Traumatic injuries are caused by actions of the same sport, so contact sports are more prone to these injuries, whereas overuse injuries can be caused by any kind of sport and are related to the quantity and quality of sports practice time.
Sports injuries can affect the following structures:
- Muscles: they are the motor part of the limbs and produce joint movement. Injuries can be caused by direct trauma, indirectly by stretching or by an eccentric mechanism, or by direct trauma. The treatment will be directed according to the degree and state of the injury so as to improve the pain, perform stretches to provide the injured area with a good level of elasticity and to progressively bring in eccentric muscular work.
- Tendons: they are the structures that join muscles and bones and serve to transmit muscle strength. Injuries are usually caused by overuse. The treatment will be very similar to that of a muscular injury, through stretches and eccentric exercises.
- Joint injuries. There are several joint structures that can be injured:
- Joint cartilage. This is the tissue which basically reduces friction in joint movement. Its injury or deterioration leads to joint degeneration or osteoarthritis. It can be traumatically affected or suffer from diseases such as osteochondritis dissecans.
- Meniscus-labrum: structures that are found between the joint surfaces. Their primary function is cushioning the joint strength and increasing the joint congruence. Its injury causes joint pain, blockages and the production of joint fluid. In meniscal surgery it is essential to conserve as much as possible, as a lack of meniscus or labrum may trigger the degeneration of joint cartilage.
In both cases the treatment will consist of obtaining the correct trophism and muscle tone and a good balance of the whole kinetic chain of the limb so that the transmission of loads that the joint undergoes is well distributed.
- Ligaments: structures whose primary function is helping to provide the joints with stability. An injury to the ligaments left untreated will cause instability and eventually the deterioration of joint cartilage and osteoarthritis. There are ligaments whose functions are essential for developing pivotal activities such as in football, especially the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which in athletes needs surgical repair to be able to return to sports practice. Other ligaments such as the lateral internal ligament of the knee or the lateral external do not currently require surgery. Moreover, excellent results are achieved with the application of PRP (platelet rich plasma), immobilisation and proper physiotherapy.
In ligament injuries the treatment must be focused on achieving a good level of stability in the affected joint. This is achieved through muscular reinforcement of the entire motor chain and proprioceptive exercises.
- Synovial: The synovial membrane is the tissue that covers the whole joint. Its inflammation causes an overproduction of synovial fluid known as joint effusion. It can be affected by trauma, associated with other joint ailments or rheumatic diseases such as gout or arthritis.
In the case of synovitis physiotherapeutic treatment will consist of anti-inflammatory measures (cryotherapy, compression…). It will then move on to a recovery phase of the function (increase in muscle mass, proprioception, range of motion…)